Blockchain is a system for storing accurate and secure digital recordings. It is based on creating a chain of blocks that contain temporary transaction packets. The formation of a digital distributed database is carried out using cryptography in chronological order using software calculations. Each block of the chain is associated with the previous one and contains a set of digital records. For example, it can store information about financial transactions: parties involved, the amount of money transferred.
During transactions, the registry changes and a new data set is created. A verified transaction becomes a new block of information that is added to the chain. It is impossible to cancel or change a signed transaction after adding it to the blockchain. The block has a unique cryptographic hash, a timestamp that determines its place in the chain, and also contains key signatures of all those who made the changes. After the transaction is completed, the entire system is automatically updated.
Key Features of Blockchain Technology
- Decentralization. The lack of a traditional centralized organization is the main advantage of blockchain technology. The distributed blockchain system does not depend on point-to-point transactions and the collaboration of the credit center in a distributed system. This avoids problems with data security, coordination efficiency, and risk control.
- Transparency. The blockchain network, working on cryptographic signatures, makes it impossible to fake or modify information stored in blocks. Any user can access the database for recording transactions. Thanks to the transparent and open mode, everyone can act as an observer. No transaction can occur without writing to this system.
- Data security. The blockchain network consists of many electronic devices (nodes), the interaction between which is carried out through a consensus protocol. Consensus protocols are some of the most revolutionary features of blockchain technology. They create a reliable coordination system between different nodes through a distributed network. Simply put, if one of the nodes encounters network problems, hardware failures, software errors, this will not affect the operation of other nodes.
Prospects for development and use
Since blockchain technology offers the possibility of creating a fraud protection system, it has great potential for use outside the digital sphere of cryptocurrencies.
• Banking. The use of blockchain technology in the financial and banking sectors will guarantee the speed, security, efficiency of operations. For example, blockchain can prevent fraudulent activity or theft of personal data by providing traceable records of all transactions taking place on the network.
• Retail. Payments in trade can be greatly simplified using blockchain, thanks to the use of virtual currencies. The use of cryptocurrencies will ensure the security of payments of all sizes, and will also allow transactions from around the globe to pass quickly and safely. In addition, blockchain systems will be able to help large manufacturers track their supply chain in any country in the world.
• Data storage. The amount of data created by man every day is growing rapidly. The use of cloud storage has proven effective, has become a popular place to store large amounts of information. Nevertheless, serious problems remain related to the stability and safety of storage. Blockchain technology can provide secure data storage by powering open source P2P networks. Distributed networks will connect users with their data with users who are able to offer or lease storage for this data as needed.
• Combination with the Internet of things. Today, the Internet of Things (IoT) is an internal network of operators and enterprises whose centralized structure cannot effectively protect data security and user privacy. The decentralization of blockchain networks can provide IoT with the ability to solve these problems. Using a point-to-point connection to transmit information does not require the introduction of unified data centers for synchronization and control. All operations, including data collection, issuing instructions, updating software, can be transmitted through the Distributed networks.
The advent of blockchain networks has become a powerful combination of security, privacy, and transparency. Blockchain-based security systems applications are virtually limitless. Technology has forever changed the shape of the world economy, becoming indispensable for many banks, large corporations and even states in a short period of time.